A selection of tearsheets, showcasing the work of Kristian Bertel in print. Some of this work is commisioned assignments and brought in magazines. Besides the travel publications like International Traveller Magazine, the editorial demand for travel photography exists in industries like travel, photo education and photography schools. Many travel photographers also give photo advices for photo students, helping travel enthusiasts take great travel images during their trips.

See more about the tearsheets here
The photographer's photos and photographic work has been published in the January/February 2014 issue of the International Traveller Magazine, a magazine published by Australian Traveller Media. In this photograph one of the photographer's pictures of an Indian woman in the town of Pushkar has been selected as the primary photo for opening up the story.
106-107 The photographer's photos and photographic work has been published in the January/February 2014 issue of the International Traveller Magazine, a magazine published by Australian Traveller Media. In this photograph one of the photographer's pictures of an Indian woman in the town of Pushkar has been selected as the primary photo for opening up the story.
India is a mesmerising clash of beauty, colors and chaos, nowhere more than in Rajasthan, the parched desert state that is at once compelling and confounding. Here, photographer Kristian Bertel captures it in all its vivid glory, with a photograph of a couple of Indian women working at the Amber Fort in Jaipur, Rajasthan in India.
108-109 India is a mesmerising clash of beauty, colors and chaos, nowhere more than in Rajasthan, the parched desert state that is at once compelling and confounding. Here, photographer Kristian Bertel captures it in all its vivid glory, with a photograph of a couple of Indian women working at the Amber Fort in Jaipur, Rajasthan in India.
Nothing in India is indentifiable, the mere asking of a question causes it to disappear and merge into something else. International Traveller Magazine is a magazine for Australians heading overseas, using the same values of quality editorial and independent reviews that made the original Australian Traveller Magazine the most trusted travel magazine in Australia.
110-111 Nothing in India is indentifiable, the mere asking of a question causes it to disappear and merge into something else. International Traveller Magazine is a magazine for Australians heading overseas, using the same values of quality editorial and independent reviews that made the original Australian Traveller Magazine the most trusted travel magazine in Australia.
International Traveller Magazine's goal is to be the most authoritative, accessible, informative and entertaining source for any international traveller in the world as with this one of the photographer's photos of a religious gathering in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh in India. The travel magazine has featured the photos of Kristian Bertel | Photography over five spreads in their magazine.
112-113 International Traveller Magazine's goal is to be the most authoritative, accessible, informative and entertaining source for any international traveller in the world as with this one of the photographer's photos of a religious gathering in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh in India. The travel magazine has featured the photos of Kristian Bertel | Photography over five spreads in their magazine.
India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grandmother of tradition. In these photographs Pushkar Lake in Pushkar, Rajasthan in India and an Indian woman in Mandawa, Rajasthan in India are making traditional Indian jewellery in a street of the town.
114-115 India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grandmother of tradition. In these photographs Pushkar Lake in Pushkar, Rajasthan in India and an Indian woman in Mandawa, Rajasthan in India are making traditional Indian jewellery in a street of the town.

Photo works published in magazines

Over the years some of the published work of the photographer can be seen here on the tearsheets section of the photographer's website. The photos have been chosen by editors for publication in national and international magazines worldwide. These compelling, intimate, humanitarian images are a part of a notable photography recognision is published in print. After several years of photo works, the photographer made his first of what would become many trips to India. Traveling with little more than a bag of clothes and camera gear, he made his way across the subcontinent, exploring the country with his camera. Since his first trip to India, the photographer has gone on to create stunning images in the Maharashtra state and countless streets and neighborhoods. His work spans portraits, cultures, Indian traditions and contemporary culture alike, yet always retains the human element that made his image of the Indian girl on the frontpage of his website a beloved image by many. Something which the Photographer on assignments can use, taking the photographs that he loves the most of sceneries of street markets and colorful festivals in India. For him traveling broadens the mind and where he learns about other people, other places and other ways of doing things. As a Hindu country, India is still dominated by the caste system and is more conservative, especially outside major cities. Therefore, please do not dress liberally and avoid strict tenderness in public. In temples, take off your shoes. The peculiarities of Indian culture mean that timetables for buses and trains are only guideline values and the people are very helpful. Who gets involved, experiences an incredible affection and also deceleration. Culinary, the Journey through India is a culinary delight and the many spices and fresh fruits create an exotic taste experience, but just make sure everything is well cooked or fried and you are not drinking any tap water. In addition to summer and winter, there is still the rainy season in India in July and August. In general, it is very hot in the summer and particularly humid in the south. For a trip to India, therefore, winter, even if you already need warmer clothes for the cool nights in the north. Non-digital photographs and travel photographs are orignally produced with a two-step chemical proces and in the two-step process the light-sensitive film captures a negative image ccolors and lights and darks are inverted. To produce a positive image, the negative is most commonly transferred 'printed' onto photographic paper. Printing the negative onto transparent film stock is used to manufacture motion picture films. Alternatively, the film is processed to invert the negative image, yielding positive transparencies. Such positive images are usually mounted in frames, called slides. Before recent advances in digital photography, transparencies were widely used by professionals because of their sharpness and accuracy of color rendition. Most photographs published in magazines were taken on color transparency film.

Editorial photos from India in travel magazines

Originally, all photographs were monochromatic or hand-painted in color. Although methods for developing color photos were available as early as 1861, they did not become widely available until the 1940s or 1950s and even so, until the 1960s most photographs were taken in black and white. Since then, color photography has dominated popular photography, although black and white is still used, being easier to develop than color. t is best to leave photographs lying flat on the table when viewing them. Do not pick it up from a corner or even from two sides and hold it at eye level. Every time the photograph bends, even a little, this can break down the emulsion. The very nature of enclosing a photograph in plastic encourages users to pick it up; users tend to handle plastic enclosed photographs less gently than non-enclosed photographs, simply because they feel the plastic enclosure makes the photo impervious to all mishandling. As long as a photo is in its folder, there is no need to touch it, simply remove the folder from the box, lay it flat on the table and open the folder. If for some reason the researcher or archivist does need to handle the actual photo, perhaps to examine the verso for writing, he or she can use gloves if there appears to be a risk from oils or dirt on the hands. A magazine is a publication, usually a periodical publication as the travel magazine seen above, which is printed or electronically published and also sometimes referred to as an online magazine. Magazines are generally published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content of travel destinations with themes. As the photographer learned these travel magazines are generally financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions or a combination of the three and in the case of written publication like International Traveller Magazine, it is a collection of written articles and this is why magazine publications share the root with travel magazines and in India, retail stores such as department stores. Editorial travel magazines as seen below also focus on the field of natural light and in the field of ambient light photography. Publishing is the dissemination of travel destinations such as India making information available to the general public. In some cases with editorial photography, authors may also be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of travel content also provide media to deliver and display the content for the same. Also the written publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns or heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing, websites, blogs, travel publishers and the like.

India combines the most terrible and the most beautiful at the same time

For about 5,000 years India has been celebrating life and all its pleasures. Despite the changes and diversities in India, the country is still a picturesque and a unique tourist destination. The country's civilization is among the oldest in the world and the imaginations of tourists are always captivated by India's legends and culture and there are many places to visit and if you see the places your imagination will surely be colorful. But India combines the most terrible and the most beautiful at the same time and the photographer is interested in both the beauty and the ugliness of the country, such as India's poverty. The amount of people is unmanageable and the streets are never quiet, where mobile kitchen stalls, sales booths with every conceivable goods, hasty pedestrians, dusty cars and ringing rickshaws can be seen near half-naked beggars, sleepy cows. Sugar cane juice is freshly squeezed at one corner, sacks of spices are lined up and carefully piled up in a pile waiting for beaten goat heads on their shoppers. Lean men sleep immovably on the roadside, while loud hoisting trucks run right past them and ragged children of all ages are curious about every foreign visitor. Dogs and chickens search the rubbish on the road for something edible. Incredible India is beautiful and terrible at the same time. Travelers traveling on the Indian subcontinent split themselves into two camps, for some, it is a dreamland, in which they return again and again. For the others it is a simple nightmare, which they never want to repeat. About seventy percent of India's population is Indo-Aryan, while twentysix percent belong to the Dravids, who live mainly in the south of the country. The remaining four percent are distributed among smaller peoples, which are located above all in the northeast and east of the country. The desert and semi-desert area of western India is a unique natural space that should be visited. Located in the Middle East and separated from other Indian areas, are the large sand dunes, which can reach up to 150 m. The Thar Desert is bordered by the rivers Satluj and Indus, as well as the salt marsh Rann von Kachchh and the Aravelligebirge. Extreme temperatures characterize the region, which belongs to the state of Rajasthan. In winter, the thermometer sinks below freezing, while in summer it even reaches the 50° C mark. If you want to travel to this desert area, you should first inform yourself in detail about the climatic conditions and find the right time to travel. A camel safari through the Thar desert will in any case be an exciting adventure that no traveler forgets. Mumbai is the largest city in India with 20 million inhabitants. New Dehli, the capital of India, on the other hand, if one adds the agglomeration to it, has only about 17.5 million inhabitants. Other large and well-known cities are among many others, for instance Kolkata, Kanpur and Chennai. If you spend your holidays in India, you should plan a visit to one of the big cities in the country. The mixture of old colonial-era buildings and modern buildings characterizes many cities. In addition, there are numerous attractions almost everywhere, such as Museums, parks or gardens.

Immerse yourself in life on India

India, a country with the cultural diversity of an entire continent and the beauty of the landscape combined with thousands of years of history and religion make a trip to India a fascinating experience. Cultural attractions are the sightseeing in Delhi with the Jama-Mashid-Mosque, Agra with the Taj Mahal or the erotic sculptures of the former Chandela empire in Khajuraho. Experience Rajasthan on a trip to India - land of the Maharajas and the Great Mughals, land of magnificent temples and palaces, land of thousands of years of history and cultural diversity, exotic mixture of colorful goings-on and ancient customs. During our India trips you will have the opportunity to get to know this country and its people intensively. Meet sacred cows and magnificent elephants, let yourself be enchanted by the land of Bollywood and enjoy culinary highlights. India has a lot to offer. The Thar Desert is located in the middle of the state of Rajasthan and is the only true large desert in India. Sometimes it looks more like an African bush landscape than a real desert, but you can find some beautiful sand dunes here, of which there are permanent tours for tourist groups. This semi-arid stretch of land is located around the city of Jaisalmer. A great classic is offered to tourists here with he fortress city of Jaisalmer lies in the heart of the Thar Desert. It is yellow and okker colored and surrounded by huge, five kilometres long fortress walls and it looks like a Fata Morgana in the middle of the desert. Do not think twice and stay here for a few days and there are beautiful guest houses with rooms and restaurants with views of the desert and the fortress walls and it is very romantic. This is one of of the photographer's favorite cities in all of India and the photographer recommend it to all travelers while in India and one can admire the sunset from the large Sam or Khuri dunes. This is a must in this region, although the crowd gathered on the dune is sometimes frightening. The great activity and attraction of the Thar Desert is the famous camel ride in the dunes for one or more days. Personally, the photographer decided to spend several days in order to feel and enjoy the atmosphere of the desert as long and as intensely as possible and he keeps them in wonderful memory. However, The photographer recommend all travelers who want to comb the desert with a camel to find out about the best agencies at the moment at the tourist information office, in your guest house and from the locals or other backpackers. In fact, prices can double or even triple from one travel guide to another and some agencies are real rip-offs. It is better not to rush to the first offer that comes up and it is better to compare several offers before making your choice. The icing on the cake of a trip to India is of course the bivouac in the dunes under the open sky and the best time of year to spend the night outdoors is of course the dry season, although it also rarely rains in the desert during the monsoon season. Some street vendors in Jaisalmer or even in the desert offer you Bhang Lassis or Bhang Cookies with hashish.

Many impressions in India

Myth, magic and modernity and India is back in and with the Palace of the Winds, colorful exotic and exciting cities, the many faces of the hip subcontinent are both fascination and inspiration. The north of India discovered for you with the photographs with their unforgettable experiences such as the photographers pictures of the country to know the world from its most exciting side. For the first time one can read about the insights by the photographer and it is a region of fascinating contrasts in the Golden triangle between Delhi, Jaipur and Agra, where magical splendor and fascinating modernity mix. New Delhi the capital of India with its thousand year old history, is also the city with the most sights and also many beggars. Here, among the ruined fortifications of the old fort of Purana Quila, during the last excavations, it was discovered that the city is equated with Indra-Prastha, the legendary metropolis of the Aryans. However, the first historical records date back long time ago, when the Rajput princes were based in the city. Prithviraj, the last Hindu king who ruled Delhi lost his life in a battle almost 1000 years ago. Until the British colonial rule then ruled by Muslim rulers. Today's Delhi consists of two distinct parts. on the one hand the Old Delhi with its typically oriental quarters, its narrow streets and bazaars, its temples, mosques and other historical monuments. On the other hand, the New Delhi, which was created symmetrically as a garden city. Here, among the tombs and mausoleums, memorial sites of noble rulers and kings, Delhi is as it was designed by the British. wide boulevards, pristine gardens, scattered colonial summer houses and shady avenues. The Rajpath Boulevard begins at the Indian Gate and runs past the imposing Parliament building dead straight to the gates of the Rahtrapati Bhawan Palace, the residence of former viceroys. In Mumbai the photographer was located above one of the slums at a small staircase leads directly into a alley to the houses. There are a few stone walls, others consist of corrugated iron and others have a large plastic tarpaulin instead of a roof seeing an outdoor laundry filled with water or soap. Bedlakes, towels, uniforms for cooks and waiters, colorful shirts and pants fluttering on long clotheslines to dry and between the stone arches stand men and women, washing one piece of cloth by hand for an hour and all day hands in soapy water. A few leeches are taken from a leash where a woman carries them in a large basket on her head to a dugout. But not everything is clean in India. Generally tourist stomachs are simply not prepared for a country like India and no matter how hard you try to keep all hygienic rules and not get sick, nearly every Indian traveler will ultimately suffer from a diarrhea. Hygiene in India is undoubtedly a difficult topic for travelers. This not only concerns food, tap water or toilets, but also accommodations. In fact, you can stay in India very well and cheaply, especially in the touristically developed areas. Still, it does not hurt to pick up a few more rupees now and then to avoid stained bed sheets and bed bugs. Anyone who still has to look at the money, the photographer recommends for your own well-being always a silk sleeping bag or an in-bed sleeping bag to have in your luggage. One of the other classic situation as a traveler in India is the misunderstanding of the 'Yes'. When waving a rickshaw on the roadside and call the friendly driver a destination, then he nods, we negotiate to the mark for the transport price and then the traveler climb the rickshaw. But after a while one will see that he drives in a circle. Of course, the rickshaw driver does not know where the traveler want to go. Had he not nodded "Yes, no problem" or an approving nod in India does not always mean "Yes". Saying no to the Indians is not very special. If you ask in India for the way, so you will always get directions, no matter whether the questioned him really knows. Saying no is frowned upon in India and you are always friendly, helpful and obedient to guests. It is therefore always suitable to use a map with Indian script to aid in visualizing the goal.

Tourism in India

Over 10 million foreign tourists arrived in India in one of the recent years and Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh were the most popular states for tourists. Over the years, Indian tourism has grown considerably as is indicated by the arrival of foreign tourists. In India religious tourism takes place as well and in particular pilgrimage, can serve to strengthen faith and to demonstrate devotion and both of which are central tenets of many major religions. Religious tourists may seek destinations whose image encourages them to believe that they can strengthen the religious elements of their self-identity in a positive manner. Given this, the perceived image of a destination may be positively influenced by whether it conforms to the requirements of their religious self-identity or not. In Hindu religion and spirituality, the pilgrimage has great significance and members of the faith participate in the following types of pilgrimage and the pilgrimage to each sacred site has its own religious significance. In India the so-called 'Slum tourism' is also seen and it commonly known that tourists in Mumbai's Dharavi slum were motivated primarily by curiosity, as opposed to several competing push factors such as social comparison, entertainment, education or self-actualization. In addition, the study found that most slum residents were ambivalent about the tours, while the majority of tourists reported positive feelings during the tour, with interest and intrigue as the most commonly cited feelings and many tourists often come to the slums to put their life in perspective. Slum tourism has been the subject of much controversy, with critics labelling the voyeuristic aspects of slum tourism. Slum tourism is mainly performed in urban areas of developing countries, most often named after the type of areas that are visited and in India and various places are including Dharavi in Mumbai, as depicted in the movie Slumdog Millionaire. While mainly light-skinned Indians live in the north, the melanids are primarily found in the south. Most mountain people in the Himalayan region, on the other hand, belong to the Mongolids. In addition, there are about 80 million Divasi, the indigenous people of India. In total, there are well over 500 different tribes the so-called schedulded tribes that for instance include the Naga, Mizo and Bodo or Assamese. The majority of the population of India is very poor and lives from rice cultivation, agriculture and livestock. Far more than a quarter of the population does not have enough money to get enough food. The consequences are malnutrition and deficiency symptoms. Especially in rural areas, child labor is the order of the day because the income of many families is not enough to survive. Many farmers sell not only their land, but also their services. This so-called debt bondage is a major problem in the fight against poverty. The often unsustainable living conditions cause many rural people to migrate to the cities. For a long time, the metropolises of the country are no longer able to absorb the large refuge currents. One third of the inhabitants of the metropolises therefore live in slums.

Rituals in India

A ritual is a stereotyped sequence of activities involving gestures, words and objects as seen in the picture from India, performed in a sequestered place, and designed to influence preternatural entities or forces on behalf of the actors' goals and interests. Rituals may be seasonal, hallowing a culturally defined moment of change in the climatic cycle or the inauguration of an activity such as planting, harvesting, or moving from winter to summer pasture or they may be contingent, held in response to an individual or collective crisis. Contingent rituals may be further subdivided into life-crisis ceremonies, which are performed at birth, puberty, marriage, death and so on, to demarcate the passage from one phase to another in the individual's life-cycle, and rituals of affliction, which are performed to placate or exorcise preternatural beings or forces believed to have afflicted villagers with illness, bad luck, gynecological troubles, severe physical injuries and the like. Other classes of rituals include divinatory rituals such as ceremonies performed by political authorities to ensure the health and fertility of human beings, animals and crops in their territories as initiation into priesthoods devoted to certain deities, into religious associations or into secret societies and those accompanying the daily offering of food and libations to deities or ancestral spirits or both. Indian religions are practiced or were founded in the Indian subcontinent. They are sometimes classified as the dharmic religions, as they all feature dharma, the specific law of reality and duties expected according to the religion. Hinduism is a synecdoche describing the similar philosophies of Vaishnavism, Shaivism and related groups practiced or founded in the Indian subcontinent. Concepts most of them share in common include karma, caste, reincarnation, mantras, Yantras and Darsana. Hinduism is the most ancient of still-active religions with origins perhaps as far back as prehistoric times. Hinduism is not a monolithic religion but a religious category containing dozens of separate philosophies amalgamated as Sanatana Dharma, which is the name by which Hinduism has been known throughout history by its followers. Held along the banks of the holy Ganges River, this festival features cultural programs of classical music and dance. The highlight of the festival is on the last day, when more than a million clay lamps are floated down the river at dusk amidst chanting of Vedic hymns as part of Dev Deepavali, which means "the Diwali of the Gods" or "Festival of Lights of the Gods" is the festival of Kartik Poornima celebrated in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. It falls on the full moon of the Hindu month of Kartika in November to December and takes place fifteen days after Diwali. The steps of all the ghats on the riverfront of the Ganges River, from Ravidas Ghat at the southern end to Rajghat, are lit with more than a million earthen lamps the so-called Diyas in honour of Ganga, the Ganges, and its presiding goddess. The gods are believed to descend to Earth to bathe in the Ganges on this day. The festival is also observed as Tripura Purnima Snan.

Traditional peculiarities in India

The tradition of lighting the lamps on the Dev Deepawali festival day was first started at the Panchganga Ghat in 1985. During Dev Deepawali, houses are decorated with oil lamps and colored designs on their front doors. Firecrackers are burnt at night, processions of decorated deities are taken out into the streets of Varanasi and oil lamps are set afloat on the river. The main rituals performed by devotees consist of Kartik snan, which is taking a holy bath in the Ganges during Kartika and Deepdan, where an offering of oil lighted lamps to Ganga are made in the evening. The Ganga aarti is also performed in the evening. The five day festivals starts on Prabodhini Ekadashi and concludes on Kartik Poornima. Besides a religious role, the festival is also the occasion when the martyrs are remembered at the ghats by worshipping Ganga and lighting lamps watching the Aarti. This is organized by Ganga Seva Nidhi when wreaths are placed at Amar Jawan Jyoti at Dashashwamedh Ghat and also at the adjoining Rajendra Prasad Ghat by officials of the Varanasi district. The festival is a major tourist attraction, and the sight of a million lamps, which are both floating and fixed lighting the ghats and river in vivid colors have often been described by visitors and tourists as a breathtaking sight. On the night of the festival, thousands of devotees from the holy city of Varanasi, surrounding villages, and across the country gather in the evening on the ghats of the Ganges to watch the Aarti. The local government makes several intensive arrangements to ensure order during the festival. From the Aarti at the Dashameshwar Ghat, all buildings and houses are lit with earthen lamps. Nearly 100,000 pilgrims visit the riverfront to watch the river aglitter with lamps. The Aarti is performed by twentyone young Brahmin priests and twentyfour young women. The rituals involve chanting hymns, rhythmic drum beating, conch shell blowing and brazier burning. Boat rides in boats of all sizes along the riverfront in the evening are popular among tourists, when all the ghats are lit with lamps and Aarti is being performed. As the photographer had gained knowledge about the vast majority of Indians engage in religious rituals on a daily basis. Most Hindus observe religious rituals at home and the observation of rituals vary greatly amongst regions, villages and individuals in India. Devout Hindus perform daily chores such as worshiping Puja, fire sacrifice called Yajna at the dawn after bathing usually at a family shrine and typically includes lighting a lamp and offering foods before the images of deities, recitation from religious scripts like Vedas, Puranas singing hymns in praise of gods and so on. A notable feature in religious ritual is the division between purity and pollution. Religious acts presuppose some degree of impurity, or defilement for the practitioner, which must be overcome or neutralized, before or during ritual procedures. Purification, usually with water, is thus a typical feature of most religious action. Other characteristics include a belief in the efficacy of sacrifice and concept of merit, gained through the performance of charity or good works, that will accumulate over time and reduce sufferings in the next world.

Hindusim and prayer ceremonies

Hindu beliefs are vast and diverse and thus Hinduism is often referred to as a family of religions rather than a single religion. Within each religion in this family of religions, there are different theologies, practices, and sacred texts and this diversity has led to an array of descriptions for Hinduism. There are four goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, the so-called duties, Artha which means rosperity, Kama which means desires and passions, Moksha which means liberation, freedom and salvation, Karma which means action, intent and consequences, Samsāra which means the cycle of rebirth and the various Yogas, which are paths or practices to attain Moksha. Hindu rituals include Puja, which means worship and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, and occasional pilgrimages. Some Hindus leave their social world and become sanyasi to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, non-violence called Ahimsa, patience, self-restraint, and compassion, among others. The four largest sects of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartism. There are many Hindu Festivals celebrated throughout the world but mainly in India and Nepal. These festivals include worship, offerings to deities, fasting, rituals, fairs, charity, celebrations, Puja and so on. The festivals mainly celebrate events from Hindu mythology, changes in season, changes in Solar System. Different sects celebrate different festivals but festivals like Diwali, Holi, Shivratri, Raksha Bandhan, Janamashtmi and so on are celebrated by the majority of Hindus. Puja or Poojan is a prayer ritual performed by Hindus of devotional worship to one or more deities, or to host and honor a guest or one to spiritually celebrate an event. Sometimes spelt phonetically as Pooja or Poojah, it may honour or celebrate the presence of special guest and guests or their memories after they die. The word 'Puja' means reverence, honour, homage, adoration and worship. Puja rituals are also held by Buddhists and Jains. In Hinduism it is done on a variety of occasions, frequency and settings and it may include daily Puja done in the home, to occasional temple ceremonies and annual festivals. In other cases it is held to mark a few lifetime events such as birth of a baby or a wedding or to begin a new venture. The two main areas where Puja is performed are in the home and at temples to mark certain stages of life, events or some festivals such as Durga puja and Lakshmi puja. Puja is not mandatory in Hinduism. It may be a routine daily affair for some Hindus, periodic ritual for some and rare for other Hindus. In some temples in India, various Pujas may be performed daily at various times of the day in other temples, it may be occasional. Puja varies according to the school of Hinduism and may vary by region, occasion, deity honored and steps followed. In formal Nigama ceremonies, a fire may be lit in honour of deity Agni, without an idol or image present. In contrast, in Agama ceremonies, an idol or icon or image of deity is present. In both ceremonies, a lamp or incense stick may be lit while a prayer is chanted or hymn is sung. Puja is typically performed by a Hindu worshipper alone, though sometimes in presence of a priest, who is well versed in a complex ritual and hymns. In temples and priest-assisted event Puja, food, fruits and sweets may be included as sacrificial offerings to the ceremony or deity, which, after the prayers becomes Prasad, which means food shared by all gathered.


Desert life in India

In Rajasthan, India's westernmost state is the very essence of exotic India and to really get a sense of the desert state, nothing comes close to a camel safari. In India people have struggled to live in deserts and the surrounding semi-arid lands for millennia and camel herds have moved their flocks and herds to wherever grazing is available and oases have provided opportunities for a more settled way of life. The cultivation of semi-arid regions encourages erosion of soil and is one of the causes of increased desertification. Many trade routes have been forged across deserts in India, especially across the Thar Desert and traditionally were used by caravans of camels carrying salt, gold, ivory and other goods. The Thar is one of the most heavily populated desert areas in the world with the main occupations of its inhabitants being agriculture and animal husbandry. Agriculture is not a dependable proposition in this area because after the rainy season, at least one third of crops fail. Animal husbandry, trees and grasses, intercropped with vegetables or fruit trees, is the most viable model for arid regions. The Thar Desert provides recreational value in terms of desert festivals organized every year. Rajasthan desert festivals are celebrated with great zest and zeal. This festival is held once a year during winters. Dressed in brilliantly hued costumes, the people of the desert dance and sing haunting ballads of valor, romance and tragedy. The fair has snake charmers, puppeteers, acrobats and folk performers. Camels, of course, play a starring role in this festival, where the rich and colorful folk culture of Rajasthan can be seen. These camels are an integral part of the desert life and the camel events during the Desert Festival confirm this fact and special efforts go into dressing the animal for entering the competition of the best-dressed camel. Other interesting competitions on the fringes are the moustache and turban tying competitions, which not only demonstrate tradition but also inspire its preservation. Both the turban and the moustache have been centuries old symbols of honor in Rajasthan. Evenings are meant for the main shows of music and dance. Continuing till late into the night, the number of spectators swells up each night and the grand finale, on the night of a full moon, takes place by sand dunes.

Cultural India in photos

During his first vacation in India, he wanted to visit the famous sights. The Red Fort, Humayun's tomb and Chandni Chowk in Delhi, the Taj Mahal in Agra and the barren desert of Rajasthan were among his list. He had his camera always at hand to hold everything. In India there is a large number of Hindus as mentioned above and spirituality is, of course, integrated into everyday life and faith is practiced practically and pragmatically. So even with important rituals, water and food are sold loudly or air is fanned out for a few rupees. Indians have an appropriate approach, because water, food or cooling during long rituals is very important. Boasting cultural India includes not only the famous Golden Triangle Delhi - Agra - Jaipur, one of the most popular tourist routes in India, but also a fascinating variety of further highlights from the camelquiting Thar Desert to the River of Ganges in Varanasi and pilgrim places. Spread over the entire region, a wealth of magnificent historical and religious buildings awaits one to be explored in the photos by the photographer. Plunge into the hustle and bustle of a colorful India with issues such as environmental problems and the situation of women. The market district of Pahar Ganj is located right next to New Delhi Railway Station. This is probably the main reason why it is so popular with tourists. One gets away quickly, and this is in a city of 1.2 million residents and extremely predatory rickshaw drivers a huge plus. It also offers affordable accommodation, a good tourist infrastructure with souvenir shops and tour operators, and also reasonably short ways to sightseeing in the more interesting parts of Dilli. And the bustling, hyperactive life in Pahat Ganj is also not without charm. The main street, the Main Bazar, is lined with countless colorfully decorated shops, and narrow, narrow footpaths lead into a still very busy "backside of the city". However, the whole area suffers from large-scale reconstruction measures, which have the Main Bazar partially transformed into a rubble-covered post-apocalyptic desert landscape. During the daily monsoon rains, the terrain turns into an abundance of marshy mud tracks, with occasional rubble heaps for better orientation. Apparently, in the style of socialist planned economy, all the facades are renewed at the same time, that is, first hammered away labor and noise-intensive and then maybe rebuilt. Delhiis essentially a Muslim settlement, as the name suggests. it is Persian and means 'threshold', fitting for the port of entry of the Islam to India. Of the rich Muslim heritage, however, nothing is seen in Pahar Ganj, you have to make an effort to Old Delhi. The ride there grew for Petra to a bizarre mixture of nightmare, ghost train ride and near-death experience, as we were with the Fahrradriksa through the at best mediocre chaotic traffic of Old Delhi piloted. If it should be questioned "why are the Indians actually constantly?" The photographer could not answer. However the photographer agreed on the working hypothesis, they want to tell the other road users that they have just taken a breath. He used the stay in Old Delhi for an extensive visit of the district around the Jama Masjid, the largest mosque in India. This Moule-era structure is located in the middle of the historic Delhi and, along with the stylistically similar Lal Qila, the Red Fort, is considered iconic for the city. The mosque, built of red sandstone and white marble on a platform, consists of a large courtyard, which is filled five times each Friday with up to a quarter of worshipers, a portico running around it, which is pierced on three sides by gates, and finally on the East side of a multi-lane hall for the foreman and outstanding community members. In addition, the India photographs provides background information and comprehensive stories also for editors and editorial use.

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